Traumatic Brain Injuries: Types, Symptoms, and Treatments

different parts of the brain

Accidents are increasing over time. Every year, 1.35 million people die of car accidents. Those who survive a major accident suffer from major injuries. Brain injuries are quite common in such harsh accidents.

People can suffer from all kinds of injuries to their heads. It just a matter of one blow and you are suffering from a serious brain injury.

How do Traumatic Brain Injuries Occur?

Brain damage happens when a person suffers from a severe blow on the hit. The most significant reasons for your head to suffer from a traumatic injury are:

  • Falling from ladders, bed, stairs
  • Colliding with other vehicles
  • Gunshots
  • Domestic violence
  • Child abuse
  • Violently shaking babies
  • Contact sports
  • Explosives
  • Military training
  • Penetrating wounds
  • Shrapnel blows

Symptoms of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Even though the body has the tendency to cure itself, brain injuries do not recover that easily. A person’s recovery depends upon the severity of the injury and how quickly you visit the accident doctor for treatment.

Brain damage is prone to cause instant personality changes. It can affect your physical and mental health negatively. These changes depend on the part of the brain that was damaged.  

Some of the most common symptoms that an individual might experience are:

  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion in understanding tasks
  • Changes in balance
  • Slurred speech
  • Memory problems
  • Seizures
  • Constant headaches

Traumatic Head Injuries

There are different kinds of head injuries that one might suffer from. Some of these injuries are:


A concussion is categorized as a traumatic brain injury that affects the functionality of the brain. These effects are usually temporary and occur after intervals. The patient is however prone to different issues. Normally, a concussion is caused by a severe hot on the head. People can also suffer from concussions if they are violently shaken. Most people lose their consciousness during a concussion but it’s not that common. The most common symptoms that a person might suffer during a concussion are:

  • Headaches
  • Memory issues
  • Concentration problems
  • Balancing issues
  • Dizziness
  • Vomiting

If treated at the right time, people can recover from it as it does not cause permanent damage.


A contusion is a brain injury that occurs when due to damaged blood vessels and capillaries. These capillaries and blood vessels are damaged due to an accident. They can be known as a hematoma which means that the blood is collected outside the blood vessels. You can say that contusion is a scientific and complex name for a brain bruise. Your doctor will use imaging tests like x-ray or MRI to determine a better image of the injury. The most common symptoms that a person suffers during a contusion are:

  • Tenderness
  • Issues in bending properly
  • Swelling
  • Stiffness
  • Long-lasting headaches

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy is a condition that causes damage to the brain that occurs when the nerves carrying signals and messages to and from the spinal cord to the rest of the body. These nerves are usually damaged because of a blow to the brain. The peripheral nerves make a network and join the nerves to the other parts of the body. Treatment for peripheral neuropathy is completely dependent on how the injuries occur. Since the nerves are being damaged, the major symptoms are:

  • Numbness
  • Tingling in the feet
  • Burning and tingling in feet and hands
  • Affected balance
  • Loss of concentration
  • Stinging pain in affected areas
  • Weak muscles in feet

Diffuse Axonal Injury

Diffuse axonal injury is also a kind of traumatic brain injury. This normally happens when the brain shifts within the boundaries of the skull while the injury is taking place. The long connecting nerve fibers, otherwise known as axons are injured in this scenario. Pervasive axonal damage disrupts the regular transfer of signals in the brain which may result in a drastic impact on the person’s alertness. Some of the most common symptoms of Diffuse Axonal Injuries are:

  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Persistent vegetative state
  • Vomiting

Skull Fracture

A fracture to the skull is when any of the bones surrounding the brain are damaged. These fractures can occur to anyone who has been in a major car accident. In patients who have a skull fracture, brain damage can become more serious when compared to those who have a head injury without a serious rupture. The severity of the fracture depends on the position as well as the type of injury. Sometimes, the bones of the skull break but they are not displaced. This shows that the brain is not damaged. Accident doctors report that the most common symptoms of skull fracture are:

  • Consciousness
  • Fluid leaking from nose and ears
  • Swelling
  • Deformity of skull
  • Bruising around the eyes


Hematoma is a problem that occurs when larger blood vessels in the body are damaged. It is a common injury that people might suffer from at some phase of their life. The bruises appear on the skull and it usually shows the damaged vessels. Usually, the trauma to the skull causes common injuries. The blood vessels usually get damaged and allow the blood to leak. Many people think of hematoma as a hemorrhage. Hemorrhage has constant bleeding but hematoma is clotted blood. The most common symptoms of hematoma are:

  • Discoloration
  • Inflammation
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Redness
  • Warmth on the affected region
  • Constant pain

Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

The tSAH is known as bleeding in the surrounding regions of the brain. These areas do not contain any part of the brain. Instead, they act as a floating cushion to prevent the brain from damage. The fluid is known as cerebrospinal fluid. The small arteries are usually torn apart during the initial phase of the injury. The blood usually spreads very easily. This is why the tSAH has very long-lasting effects on the brain. Some of the most common symptoms are:

  • A very bad headache that happens instantly
  • Stiff neck making it impossible to move
  • Sickness and vomiting
  • Sensitivity to even a little bit of light
  • Blurry vision
  • Slurred speech
  • Weakness

Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injuries are typically a question of urgency and the effects will escalate easily without medication. Doctors typically require a fast evaluation of the condition.

Mild Injuries

Mild injuries normally require a few over-the-counter medications and pain killers. However, doctors recommend that you need to be persistent in checkups and regular visits to the doctor.

Severe Injuries

Medical attention for mild to serious traumatic brain injury aims at ensuring that the individual has ample oxygen and sufficient blood flow, controlling blood pressure, and avoiding more head or neck injuries. People who come with emergency cases are prone to other kinds of injuries as well. It is good to get yourself thoroughly tested. Treatment for peripheral neuropathy becomes a mandatory action for most cases as it determines the nerve damage.


Traumatic brain injuries can be a serious issue for many people. Many people suffer from different kinds of brain injuries in a major accident. You need to get treatment on time for such injuries because they might worsen over time. The type of injury that you can suffer from depends on the type of blow. Just make sure that you protect your head from any kind of injury in the first place.



James Williams
James is our Lead Content Publisher here at Feeds Portal. He has worked with many top websites over the years, including BuzzFeed.

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