Plant Networks: Definition, Characteristics, Types and Their Complete Functions

Plant Networks: Definition, Characteristics, and Types and Their Complete Functions

Plants are composed of cells which will then form tissues. Network is a group of cells that have the same structure and function and are bound by materials between cells to form a single unit. Early plant formation begins with meristem tissue. meristem network will be specialized into different groups called simple networks.

This simple network consists of cells with the same structure as parenchyma, colenchyma and sclerenchyma. This meristem network will then actively divide by mitosis. The ability of a continuous cell network causes continual increase in new cells so that cells experience changes in cell properties and differentiation. In addition, the consequences of this cell division will also form various complex tissues that do not have the inability to divide themselves again or become non-meristematic tissue.

Understanding Plant Networks According to Experts

Plant tissue is a network composed of cells that have different titopotential abilities compared to animal tissue, plant tissue is a network that has the ability if these plant organisms can multiply themselves negatively by the ability of the body to be composed of cells (Nurhayati, 2012, p.6).

The basic tissue system synthesizes organic compounds that support the plant and provides stimulation for this plant some colenchyma and sclerenchymal cells (Avivi, 2004, p.27).

Plant tissue is a collection of plant cells that have the same shape, origin, function and structure. Tissue in plants consists of young tissue (meristem) and adult tissue (Soerdikoesomo, 2007, p.177).

Kinds of Plant Network Structure and Their Function

Types of Plant Network Structure and Its Functions – Plants are grouped into two types, including the following …

Plant Meristem (Embryonic)

Understanding Meristem Network – Meristem network is a young network of groups of plant cells actively dividing. Meristem cells will produce new cells which part of the results of division will remain in the meristem, this is referred to as the initial or initial cell. Whereas from new cells, it is replaced by meristem cells called derivatives or derivatives.

Characteristics of the Mersitem Network

Small cell size
Consisting of young cells in the division and growth phase
Thin-walled cells
Has a relatively large nucleus
Small size vacuole
Many contain cytoplasm
The cell is cuboid

Types of Meristem Networks

Meristem networks are grouped in several types, among others, as follows …

Kinds of Meristem Networks Based on Position in Plants
    Apical meristem: located at the end of the main peak and lateral shoot and root tip
    Intercalary meristems: are found among adult tissues, for example in the meristem of the base of the plant members of the grass family
    Lateral meristem: located parallel to the organ surface found, for example in the cambium and cork cambium (felogen).

Types of Meristem Networks Based on Their Origin
    Primary meristem: if the cells develop directly from embryonic cells (apical meristem)
    Secondary meristem: if the cells develop and adult tissues are differentiated. For example cambium and cork cambium (felogen).

Adult Network (Permanent) Plants

Adult meristem networks are networks that have been differentiated. This network has no longer cleaved or is inactive.

Characteristics of Adult Networks (Permanent)

Not actively dividing
Larger size than meristem tissue
It has a large vacuole, so it has a small cell plasma and is a membrane that attaches to the cell wall
Between the cells has intercellular space
Cells have undergone wall thickening according to their function

Types of Adult Networks (Permanent)

Adult networks can consist of several types that are distinguished based on their shape and function. The various adult networks (permanent) are as follows …

a. Epidermis tissue (protector)

Epidermis tissue is the outermost layer of each plant organ such as roots, stems, leaves, fruit, flowers, seeds). Epidermal tissue functions as a protector that covers all plant organs. Epidermal tissue originates from the protoderm. After aging, it can remain or be damaged, and if it is damaged, the epidermal tissue will be replaced by cork. Generally the epidermal layer only consists of layers but there are also more with diverse shapes and sizes.

Characteristics of the Epidermis Network

Having a cell arrangement of meetings without an intercellular space
Consisting of living cells
Cell walls that vary depending on position and type of plant
Has live protoplasm containing crystals of salt, gum, silicate crystals, and oil.
Has a large vacuole that can contain anthocyanin
Chloroplast, except in the closing cell, in hydrophytes, and plants under shade
Experiencing modification by forming derivatives of epidermal tissue such as stomata, vilamen, trikomata (hairs), grit cells (silica cells), spines (spines), fan cells.

Epidermic Network Functions

Aside from being a protective function, epidermal tissue also has other functions. The various functions of the epidermis are as follows …

Limiting evaporation
Water absorption and storage
Mechanical support

b. Parenchymal (basic) tissue

Parenkin (basic) tissue is a tissue that is found throughout all plant organs. Parenchymal tissue is formed from cells that live with diverse morphological and siological structures. Can be called a basic tissue because it has a role as a constituent of most tissues in roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds.

Characteristics of the Parenchymal (Basic) Network

Consisting of cells that are large and thin-walled
Has a hexagon cell shape
The location of the cell nucleus approaches the base of the cell
Has many vacuoles
Can be embryonal and meristematic
Has intercellular space

Parenchymal (Basic) Network Functions

As a food reserve
The place for photosynthesis
As a support network

Types of Parenchymal (Basic) Networks

Parenchymal tissue (base) is grouped into two types, among others, as follows …

Types of parenchymal tissue based on their function

Assimilating parenchyma (chlorinate): contains chlorophyll and functions for photosynthesis
Water parenchyma: tissue found in xerophytic or epiphytic plants as stockpiles / storing water for the dry season.
Hoarding parenchyma: Tissue that functions as a food storage area. This network is usually found in roots, fruits, tubers, and stems. These foods can take the form of solids, flour, fat, protein, sugar.
Air parenchyma (Aerenkim): tissue that has intercellular spaces that function in floating plants in water, this can be found on the leaf stems of Canna sp
Transport parenchyma: A network that functions as a transport vessel both food and water.
Types of Parenchymal Networks Based on the Shape
Palisade parenchyma: parenkin constituent of mesophyll in leaves. This tissue is found in seeds with long, upright cell forms, containing many chloroplasts.
Spongy parenchyma: non-fixed size mesophyll leaf tissue and wide cell space
Star parenchyma: tissue that can be found on the leaves of Canna Sp. with a continuous star-like shape at the ends
Parenchymal folds: tissue that can be found in pine leaves and rice mesiophils. Folds occur inward on the cell wall and contain a lot of chloroplasts.

Supporting / Strengthening Networks (Mechanical) Plants

Supporting network / reinforcement is a network that gives strength to plants so that they can stand upright. The supporting tissue (reinforcement) of plants is divided based on the nature and form, among others, as follows …

a. Colenchymal tissue

Collenchymal tissue is a supporting tissue or reinforcement in organs of young plants and herbaceous plants. Colenchyma is a living cell that is similar to parenchyma. There are cells that contain chloroplasts and play a role in the photosynthetic process. Colenchyma is composed of living cells with protoplasm which are active and have an elongated shape with uneven thickening. Supporting networks function in strengthening plants. Cells that are strong, thick and have experienced specialization. This network also functions as a protector of vesicular damascus seeds.

Characteristics of the Colenchymal Network

Has a thick and strong structure
Can experience specialization
It is present in the stems, leaves and seeds
The cell is thickened at the corners
Thickening in the form of cellulose
In general groups form strands or cylinders

Colenchymal Network Functions

Support and strengthen plant forms
Protect carrier files
Strengthens parenchymal tissue.

b. Sklerenkim network

Sclerenchymal tissue is a tissue that is self-reinforcing from dead cells. Sklerenkim has a cell wall that is strong, thick and contains lignin. Sclerenchymes are divided into two types based on their forms, namely, fibers and sclereids (stone cells). Fiber or fiber originates from meristem tissue consisting of long cells and clustered together to form webbing or ribbons. For example, banana leaf midrib.

Characteristics of the Sklerenkim Network

Experience thickening in all parts of the cell wall
Thickening in the form of lignin
In the form of dead cells
Generally found in plant organs that no longer experience growth and development
Located on perisicles, cortex and between xylem and phloem

c. Transport Network

The transport network is a network that is responsible for transporting substances. This network is divided into two:

a. Xylem

Xylem is a food additive by passing water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and other body parts. Xilem consists of two kinds, among others, as follows …

The tracheal element, consisting of the trachea (tubular cells) and tracheid (long cells with holes in the cell wall)
Xylem fibers, consisting of long cells with a tapered tip
Xylem parenchyma, containing substances such as food reserves, tannins and crystals

b. Floem

Phloem is the transport of food substances from photosynthetic results from leaves to the entire body. The phloem is arranged as follows …

Filter feathers, tubular with hollow edges
Companion cells, cylindrical with close plasma
Phloem fibers, long in shape with ends squeezed and thick walls
Phloem parenchyma, the living cell, has a primary wall with a small hole called a dot. The phlegm parenchyma contains flour, resin or crystals.

d. Cork Network

Cork tissue is a network composed of cork cells that are elongated in shape. The cork tissue functions to protect other tissues that are underneath so that it does not lose too much water too much. Cork cells can be found on the outer surface of the stem.

Characteristics of the Cork Network

Composed of cork parenchymal cells
Is a dead and empty cell
Elongated and cork-shaped

Types of Cork Networks

Cork tissue consists of two types, among others, as follows …

Felem: cork tissue formed by cork cork outwardly and dead cells
Feloderm: cork tissue formed by cork cambium inward and living cells resembling parenchyma

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